- Background: In southern Israel, a discrepancy between a relatively high prevalence of Group B streptococcus maternal carriage (12.3%) and a very low incidence of neonatal disease (0.1/1,000 live births) has been found despite the fact that no preventive strategy has been implemented. Objectives: To determine the risk factors for maternal carriage in order to clarify this discrepancy and further examine the different aspects of GBS in southern Israel. Methods: Cultures for GBS were obtained from 681 healthy pregnant women, and relevant demographic and obstetric data were collected. The medical records of 86 neonates born to carrier women were retrospectively examined. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson chi-square test. Results: Women who were not born in Israel, particularly immigrants from the former USSR, were significantly prone to carry the pathogen compared to native Israeli women (Bedouins and Jews) (P = 0.03). Conclusions: A high GBS transmission rate is expected among immigrants who came from areas with a high prevalence of maternal carriage to one with a low incidence of neonatal disease environment and were not subject to any preventive strategy. Clinical attention should be directed to this issue throughout Israel.