- Abstract Supramolecular chemical assemblies composed of polydiacetylene (PDA) exhibit rapid colorimetric transitions upon specific interactions with a variety of biological analytes in aqueous solutions. Among the analytes that give rise to the unique blue–red color changes are lipophilic enzymes, antibacterial peptides, ions, antibodies, and membrane penetration enhancers. The chemical assemblies include conjugated PDA, responsible for the chromatic transitions, and the molecular recognition elements, which are either chemically or physically associated with the PDA. Thus, by incorporation of specific recognition elements, the system can be designed in ways allowing for highly selective identification of analytes. In particular, receptors and epitopes can be incorporated within the sensor assembly, which then determine the specificity of the colorimetric transitions. The PDA-based molecular assemblies are robust and can be readily applied to diagnosis of physiological molecules and for rapid screening of chemical and biological libraries, for example, in 96 well-plate platforms.