- Abstract Objective - To investigate whether a diagnosis of anxiety disorder is a risk factor for adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. Methods - A retrospective population based study was conducted comparing obstetric and neonatal complications in patients with and without a diagnosis of anxiety. Multivariable analysis was performed to control for confounders. Results - During the study period 256,312 singleton deliveries have occurred, out of which 224 (0.09%) in patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorder. Patients with anxiety disorders were older(32.17±5.1 vs. 28.56±5.9), were more likely to be smokers (7.1% vs.1.1%) and higher rate of preterm deliveries(PTD; 15.2% vs. 7.9%), as compared with the comparison group. Using a multiple logistic regression model, anxiety disorders were independently associated with advanced maternal age (OR 1.087; 95% CI 1.06-1.11; P=0.001), smoking (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.6-7.29; P=0.001)and preterm labor (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.32-2.8; P=0.001). In addition, having a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder was found to be an independent risk factor for cesarean section (adjusted OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.82-3.46; p<0.001), using another multivariable model. No association was noted between anxiety disorders and adverse neonatal outcomes including small for gestational age, low Apgar scores and perinatal mortality. Conclusion -Anxiety disorders are an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm delivery and cesarean section, but in our population, is not associated with adverse perinatal outcome.