- Severe allergic reaction to food following liver transplantation is a well-known phenomenon. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not yet elucidated. This study aimed to reveal the nature of the immune response in post-transplanted allergic patients and compare them to non-allergic transplanted as well as allergic and non-allergic control subjects, with focus on cytokine milieu. Post-liver transplant patients with and without allergic reactions as well as food-allergic but otherwise healthy and healthy non-allergic control patients were recruited. We reviewed patient records and routine laboratory tests and assayed subjects' PBMCs, studying cytokine secretion profile in response to different stimuli. Post-transplant patients with food allergy showed a unique cytokine profile in response to various stimuli, with extremely elevated IL-5, low IL-10 secretion, and somewhat higher IFN-γ. T regulatory cell number was not significantly different among the groups of patients and controls. Immune response of food-allergic post-liver transplant patients is identified by a unique cytokine profile when compared to allergic but otherwise healthy individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.