- The central pluton within the Neoproterozoic Katharina Ring Complex (area of Gebel Mussa, traditionally believed to be the biblical Mt. Sinai) shows a vertical compositional zoning: syenogranite makes up the bulk of the pluton and grades upwards to alkali-feldspar granites. The latters form two horizontal subzones, an albite–alkali feldspar (Ab–Afs) granite and an uppermost perthite granite. These two varieties are chemically indistinguishable. Syenogranite, as compared with alkali-feldspar granites, is richer in Ca, Sr, K, Ba and contains less SiO2, Rb, Y, Nb and U; Eu/Eu* values are 0.22–0.33 for syenogranite and 0.08–0.02 for alkali-feldspar granites. The δ18O (Qtz) is rather homogeneous throughout the pluton, 8.03–8.55‰. The δ18O (Afs) values in the syenogranite are appreciably lower relative to those in the alkali–feldspar granites: 7.59–8.75‰ vs. 8.31–9.12‰. A Rb–Sr isochron (n = 9) yields an age of 593 ± 16 Ma for the Katharina Ring Complex (granite pluton and ring dikes).