- Illegal drug abuse causes significant health problems with consequences to the mother and the neonate, and an economic burden to the health system. The present study aimed to investigate pregnancy and perinatal outcome in women using illegal drugs prior to and during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study comparing pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of drug addicted women to the outcomes of other Jewish women. The study population includes all women who gave birth between the years 1989-2008 at the Soroka University Medical Center. From a total of 106,000 deliveries, 119 women were known to be drug addicted. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding maternal age and origin, but more women in the addicted group smoked, and tacked prenatal care. More women in the addicted group had obstetrics complications such as: recurrent abortions, placenta previa, pLacental abruption and preterm labor. Illegal drug abuse was significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes such as low birth weight, congenital anomalies, peripartum death and prolonged hospitalizations. Illegal drug abuse is an independent risk factor for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. This study investigated a significant problem that may be underestimated in our population. The higher incidence of pLacental abruption, placenta previa, preterm tabor and low birth weight could be a sign for placentaL insult. Illegal drug abuse is an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes and causes an economic burden. Further national studies are needed to characterize the problem, and to develop appropriate intervention programs.