- Two patients were contaminated by hepatitis during kidney transplantation from unrelated living donors, performed abroad in 2006. One patient died from fulminant hepatitis C (the first case of virus genotype 6a diagnosed in Israel) 2 months after transplantation and the other developed acute hepatitis B with YMDD to YVDD mutation necessitating life-long antiviral therapy. The dilemma of antiviral therapy in transplant recipients is discussed in this paper. Patients awaiting kidney transplantation by far outnumber the kidneys available for cadaver transplantation. International trade with living non-related kidneys has therefore become common. Comorbid conditions, although significant, are often ignored. After transplantation, the first patient presented with a picture of fulminant hepatitis C; immunosuppressive medication was tapered rapidly. This patient subsequently died from hepatic failure. The patient with active hepatitis B with YVDD mutation is receiving ongoing treatment by lamivudine and adefovir.