- Currently, infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) are two separate entities, evaluated and treated by different caregivers in different facilities. Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse while RPL’s definition is more debatable and includes a history of 2 or 3 clinically documented pregnancy losses. A thin clinical border exists between infertility and RPL in the form of preclinically documented pregnancies, also known as chemical pregnancies or non-visualized pregnancies. In these cases a positive pregnancy test confirms the occurrence of fertilization, but neither an intrauterine nor an ectopic pregnancy is visualized before a decline in HCG levels is documented. In these pregnancies, because fertilization occurs, patients are not defined as infertile and because implantation was not completed, they are not considered to have pregnancy loss.