- Objective: To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposures (risk factors) and male bladder cancer in the Negev region (southern Israel) to enable preventive strategies to be applied. Methods: A total of 92 male bladder cancer patients, diagnosed at a regional medical center between 1989 and 1993, were studied by interview and compared with 92 males without oncological disease after matching by age and country of origin. A special questionnaire was developed to gather information on demography, life-time occupational history, smoking habits, coffee consumption, and health status. Statistical analysis of the case-referent data was done using the SPSS-5 package for performance of the chi-square test, conditional logistic regression, and multiple classification analysis. Results: Significant associations were found between bladder cancer occurrence and (1) three different groups of occupational exposures [a – solvents (P = 0.002, OR not computed due to the lack of exposed persons among referents), b – dusts (P = 0.02; OR = 4.67), and c – exposure to multiple chemicals (P < 0.001, OR = 6.25); (2) nephrolithiasis (P = 0.02, OR = 11.00); and (3) cigarette smoking (P = 0.01, OR = 1.87). Conclusions: Certain types of occupational exposure, different from that to aromatic amines and dyes, may be considered as contributing factors in the epidemiology of bladder cancer. Better identification of these chemicals and the work processes where they are used may help in abating such exposures, thus leading to a reduction in the risk for this relatively common cancer.