- Abstract During 1989-1994, there were 322 episodes of Gram-negative enteric bacteremia in 308 children. The incidence increased from 31/100,000 in children younger than 15 years of age during 1989-1991, to 50/100,000 during 1992-1994. The most common pathogens were Klebsiella, E. Coli, Salmonella and Enterobacter. 39% of episodes were nosocomial and a significant increase was recorded for each species during the last 3 years of the study. Klebsiella represented the most common pathogen causing nosocomial bacteremia, while E. coli and Salmonella were the main pathogens causing community-acquired bacteremia. In this study in southern Israel, the incidence of Gram-negative enteric bacteremia was significantly higher in Bedouin children, with the exception of bacteremia due to Salmonella, which occurred mainly in Jewish children.