- Kinesin-5 mechanoenzymes drive mitotic spindle dynamics as slow, processive microtubule (MT)-plus-end directed motors. Surprisingly, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-5 Cin8 was recently found to be bi-directional: it can move processively in both directions on MTs. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the mechanism of the directionality switch: (1) single molecules of Cin8 are intrinsically minus-end directed, but mechanical coupling between two or more motors triggers the switch; (2) a single motor can switch direction, and "cargo binding" i.e., binding between two MTs triggers the switch to plus-end motility. Single-molecule fluorescence data we published recently, and augment here, favor hypothesis (2). In low-ionic-strength conditions, single molecules of Cin8 move in both minus- and plus-end directions. Fluorescence photo bleaching data rule out aggregation of Cin8 while they move in the plus and in the minus direction. The evidence thus points toward cargo regulation of directionality, which is likely to be related to cargo regulation in other kinesins. The molecular mechanisms of this regulation, however, remain to be elucidated.