- A Tuber melanosporum plantation established in 1994/1995 on Kibbutz Bar’am (in the Upper Galilee, Israel) gradually lost its T. melanosporum mycorrhiza. In 1999, T. aestivum inoculated seedlings were inadvertently introduced into the plantation to fill the gaps between trees. A single T. melanosporum fruit body was found in 1999. Although no truffles were found after 1999 and until 2009, in that year and in 2010, truffles were collected. Morphological and molecular analyses proved these to be T. aestivum. Thus, the intentionally introduced T. melanosporum mycorrhiza was replaced by that of another introduced mycorrhizal fungus, T. aestivum. Local oak species produced higher yields compared to introduced host species known to be good T. melanosporum plant symbionts. The yield was comparable to that reported for young commercial orchards, but the fruiting season was earlier than in Europe.