- The etiology and pathophysiology of cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) in the paediatric population is still poorly understood, and the role of thrombophilic risk factors remains to be elucidated. In our multi-center case-controlled study we studied 46 patients with CSVT diagnosed from April 1996 to December 2003, consecutively referred for thrombophilia work-up. The results of thrombophilia screen were compared to 112 healthy paediatric controls. Anticoagulant therapy was applied according to treating physicians' decisions, and all cases were prospectively followed for a median of 4.1 years. Of 46 children, 8 had CSVT diagnosed in the neonatal period and therefore were analyzed separately. The prevalence of single thrombophilia markers and combinations of thrombophilic risk factors were similar among cases and controls. Among children with CSVT co-morbid systemic illness was present in most patients at diagnosis. Seven out of 8 children with idiopathic CSVT had thrombophilic risk factors as compared to 31/38 patients with co-morbid conditions. Anticoagulation was initiated in most patients, 11/46 patients continued therapy for a total of one year or more post event. Neither clinical presentation nor initial treatment decisions were affected by presence of thrombophilic risk factors in our study group. Thrombophilia prevalence was not increased in children with CSVT as compared to controls, however thrombophilia was more frequent among children with idiopathic CSVT. Thus, those selected patients would benefit most from thrombophilia work-up, required for long-term therapy considerations.