Effect of estrogens on blood glutamate levels in relation to neurological outcome after TBI in male rats Academic Article uri icon


  • Purpose Estrogen has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in ovulating females results in favorable neurological outcomes when compared to males with similar insults. The brain-to-blood glutamate gradient removes excess glutamate from brain extracellular fluids (ECF). Enhancing this gradient leads to improved neurological outcomes following TBI. In this study we investigate the effect of female gonadal steroids on blood glutamate levels and neurological outcomes. Methods Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups:(1) sham,(2) Premarin treatment,(3) TBI,(4) TBI+ Premarin treatment, and (5) TBI+ Premarin pretreatment. TBI was induced, and estrogen and glutamate levels were determined at 0, 60, 120, 135, and 150 min. Neurological recovery was evaluated using the Neurological Severity Score …

publication date

  • January 1, 2012