- This article studies intellectual responses of the Egyptian middle class, or effendiyya, to the development of local consumer society during the 1970s. Effendiyya opposition to Sadat's economic reforms (infita[image omitted] ) was ample in films, film reviews, and academic writing. The most emphatic objection was raised against a transition from production- to consumption-based social stratification and society. New consumerism represented the unjust reign of the market over 'authentic' Egyptian life. This opposition served as a significant outlet for discontent among educated and often state-employed strata. Such canonic opposition testified to the success of the long-term project of building a local middle class. It also singled its partial future demise.