- Objective Maternal anemia (Hemoglobin, Study design A population-based cohort analysis was performed at the Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC), a single regional tertiary center comparing total and specific subtypes of neurological morbidities associated with hospitalizations among children stratified by three maternal post-partum hemoglobin categories: ≥11 mg/dl (no anemia); 11.0 mg/dl > Hb ≥ 7 mg/dl (mild-to-moderate anemia) and Results The study population included 217,358 deliveries of which 50.6% were in mothers who were not anemic, 49.0% in mothers with moderate anemia and 0.4% in mothers with severe anemia. During the follow up period (0–18 years, median 10.22 years), 2.1% of offspring were hospitalized with a neurological diagnoses. Neurological hospitalization incidence decreased from 2.95/1000 person years, in the severe anemia group, to 2.32/1000 person years and 2.01/1000 person years, among the mild-to-moderate and no anemia groups, respectively (p = 0.007). The association between maternal anemia and offspring long-term pediatric neurological morbidity remained significant in a Weibull hazards model controlled for gestational age, delivery mode, SGA and insufficient prenatal care (adjusted HR 1.55; 1.05–2.31 and adjusted HR 1.13; 1.06–1.20; among the severe and mild-to-moderate anemia, vs. no anemia, respectively). Conclusion Children born to anemic mothers are at an increased risk for pediatric neurological-related hospitalizations.