- Detection of abnormal body temperature facilitates proper diagnosis and evaluation of presenting complaints. The inability of any patient to maintain normal body temperature is indicative of a vast number of potentially serious disorders, including infections, neoplasms, shock, toxic reactions, and environmental exposures. Neurosurgical patient are especially vulnerable to temperature changes. More frequently, intraoperative thermal dysregulation results in hypothermia. Our chapter relates different ethiology, pathophisiology and clinical strategy of intraoperative hypothermia in neurosurgical patients.