Exotic low density fermion states in the two measures field theory: neutrino dark energy Academic Article uri icon


  • There exist field theory models where the fermionic energy–momentum tensor contains a term proportional to which may contribute to the dark energy. We show that this new field theory effect can be achieved in the Two Measures Field Theory (TMT) in the cosmological context. TMT is an alternative gravity and matter field theory where the gravitational interaction of fermionic matter is reduced to that of General Relativity when the energy density of the fermion matter is much larger than the dark energy density. In this case also the fifth force problem is solved automatically. In the opposite limit, where the magnitudes of fermionic energy density and scalar field dark energy density become comparable, nonrelativistic fermions can participate in the cosmological expansion in a very unusual manner. Some of the features of such Cosmo-Low-Energy-Physics (CLEP) states are studied in a toy model of the late time universe filled with homogeneous scalar field and uniformly distributed nonrelativistic neutrinos, and the following results are obtained: neutrino mass increases as m ∝ a3/2 (a is the scale factor); the proportionality factor in the noncanonical contribution to the neutrino energy–momentum tensor (proportional to the metric tensor) approaches a constant as a(t) → ∞ and therefore the noncanonical contribution to the neutrino energy density dominates over the canonical one ~ m/a3 ~ a-3/2 at the late enough universe; hence the neutrino gas equation-of-state approaches w = -1, i.e. neutrinos in the CLEP regime behave as a sort of dark energy as a → ∞; the equation-of-state for the total (scalar field + neutrino) energy density and pressure also approaches w = -1 in the CLEP regime; besides the total energy density of such universe is less than it would be in the universe filled with the scalar field alone. An analytic solution is presented. A domain structure of the dark energy seems to be possible. We speculate that decays of the CLEP state neutrinos may be both an origin of cosmic rays and responsible for a late super-acceleration of the universe. In this sense the CLEP states exhibit simultaneously new physics at very low densities and for very high particle masses.

publication date

  • January 1, 2006