- A familial translocation, t(14;21)(14p21p;14q21q), in a mother and her child is described. The translocation was ascertained through the birth of a Down syndrome baby with the chromosome constitution 47,XX,-14, +der 14, +der 21,t(14;21)(q11; p12) mat. A 1:3 segregation in the maternal meiosis is suggested for the evolution of the unbalanced chromosome state. The main translocated chromosome 14q21q mimics the product of a Robertsonian translocation, while the 14p21p chromosome has the morphology of a satellited microchromosome. The cytogenetic nature of this translocation is discussed.