- An immunoregulatory factor associated with spleen cells from tumor-bearing mice was found to potentiate the generation of antibody-producing cells (APC). In an attempt to characterize the target cell of this enhancing factor (EF), its activity in mice devoid of mature T lymphocytes was tested. Levels of anti-SRBC APC were augmented when EF was injected together with SRBC to nude mice and “B” mice. In addition, EF potentiated the antibody response against the IgM-inducing T. independent pneumococcal polysaccharide SIII antigen. These results suggest that EF most probably exerts its enhancing influence directly on B lymphocytes. In a different line of experiments adoptive secondary responses were performed. Mice were immunized with SRBC as carrier or with the NIP-chicken erythrocytes (as a source of NIP-specific primed B cells) in the presence or absence of EF. Various combinations of spleen cells from the donor immunized mice were transferred in a mixture with NIP-SRBC to lethally irradiated recipient mice. EF did not exert any potentiation effect on helper function, except when primed B cells were used. In contrast, a clear activation or clone expansion of hapten-specific B cells was observed. These findings indicate that the enhancing factor from tumor-bearing animals directly affected the anti-genie triggering of B lymphocytes and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation to antibody-producing cells.