- The frequency of positive cone margins and its significance in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia are under controversy. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with positive cone margin status and to evaluate its clinical significance in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Medical records of women who underwent loop electrosurgical excision procedure at the Soroka Medical Center (January 2001–July 2011) were reviewed retrospectively. Patient age, extent of dysplasia, endocervical glands involvement, positive margin status, type of margin involved, degree of margin involvement, and postcone endocervical curettage results were evaluated as possible factors associated with persistent/recurrent disease. A total of 376 women were included in the study. Cone margin involvement was observed in 33% (endocervical—22%, ectocervical—8%, both margins—3%). Factors significantly associated with cone margin involvement were older age (older than 35 y), widespread dysplasia in the cone specimen (≥4 sections) (P<0.001 for each), and endocervical glands involvement (P=0.003). Fifty patients (13%) had persistent/recurrent disease. Involvement of the cone margins (focal: hazard ratio=17, P<0.001; extensive: hazard ratio=28, P<0.001) and older age (hazard ratio=1.18 for every 5 additional years, P=0.03) were associated with persistent/recurrent disease. We conclude that women older than 35 yr with widespread high-grade dysplasia in the cone specimen and involvement of endocervical glands are more likely to have positive cone margins. Positive cone margins, particularly when extensively involved, and increased patient age are associated with persistent/recurrent disease. These factors should be considered while planning for further management.