Indirect behavioral indicators and their uses in conservation and management Academic Article uri icon


  • Animals inhabit environments that are rapidly changing due to anthropogenic activities, such as the destruction and fragmentation of habitats, the introduction of exotic species and the alteration of local and global climate regimes. These changes are stretching the capacity of animals to cope, with conditions potentially outside the bounds of those experienced over the recent evolutionary history of the species. For managers of protected areas and endangered populations to respond in time to the threats posed by changing environments, these threats must be recognized early on, when still relatively benign, so as to be able to mitigate or counteract the adverse consequences of the altered environment. Coping takes place most immediately through behavioral responses, perhaps followed at a later stage by adjustments in physiology, and maybe over generational scales by shifts in morphology …

publication date

  • April 30, 2016