- To determine risk factors for maternal rehospitalization after term vaginal delivery. The study group consisted of all women who were rehospitalized following singleton vaginal deliveries during 1996-1998 (n = 194). The control group consisted of 427 women who were not rehospitalized during the same period. The incidence of rehospitalization was 0.75% (194/25885). Maternal chronic diseases, preterm contractions and pre-eclampsia rates were significantly higher among the study group as compared to the controls (25.3% vs. 8.4%, p < 0.001; 6.7% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.022; 9.3% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.037, respectively). Duration of labor was significantly longer in the study group as opposed to the controls (379 +/- 406 min vs. 259 +/- 276 min, p < 0.001). The rates of postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion and antibiotic treatment during delivery hospitalization were significantly higher among the study group (1.5% vs. 0.2%, p = 0.021; 4.6% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001; 26.8% vs. 14.1%, p < 0.001, respectively). Using a forward logistic regression analysis, prolonged labor and blood transfusion during labor were found as independent risk factors associated with rehospitalization (OR 1.001, 95% CI 1.001-1.002, p = 0.001; OR 4.751, 95% CI 1.698-13.292, p = 0.003). In contrast, vertex presentation had a protective effect against rehospitalization (p = 0.027, OR 0.084, 95% CI 0.009-0.758). Blood transfusion and prolonged labor are independent risk factors for rehospitalization after term vaginal delivery. Special attention should be given during the early postpartum period to patients receiving blood transfusions and those with prolonged deliveries, in order to reduce rehospitalization rates.