Magnetic bipoles in rotating turbulence with coronal envelope Academic Article uri icon


  • The formation of sunspots and starspots is not yet fully understood and is therefore one of the major open problems in solar and stellar physics. Magnetic flux concentrations can be produced by the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). This instability is strongly suppressed by rotation. However, the presence of an outer coronal envelope was previously found to strengthen the flux concentrations and make them more prominent. It also allows for the formation of bipolar regions (BRs). We want to know whether the presence of an outer coronal envelope also changes the excitation conditions and the rotational dependence of NEMPI. We use direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations. We adopt a simple two-layer model of turbulence that mimics the jump between the convective turbulent and coronal layers below and above the surface of a star, respectively. The computational domain is Cartesian and located at a certain latitude of a rotating sphere. We investigate the effects of rotation on NEMPI by changing the Coriolis number, the latitude, and the box resolution. Rotation has a strong impact on the process of BR formation. Even rather slow rotation is found to suppress their formation. However, increasing the imposed magnetic field strength also makes the structures stronger and alleviates the rotational suppression somewhat. The presence of a coronal layer itself does not significantly alleviate the effects of rotational suppression.

publication date

  • January 1, 2019