Human-Robot Cooperative Precision Spraying: Collaboration Levels and Optimization Function Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper presents two elements for the collaboration of a human operator with a robotic sprayer: definition of human–robot collaboration levels and a spraying coverage optimization function. Four levels of human-robot collaboration for marking the areas to be sprayed are developed and presented. A Spraying Coverage Optimization Function (SCOF) is developed as a utility function that evaluates the profit [$] of the spraying process given the process variables values. The SCOF influencing parameters are classified and presented.

publication date

  • January 1, 2012