- The volume pinning force, Fp(max), increases with increasing synthesis or sintering pressure (0.1 MPa–2 GPa) in materials prepared at high temperature (1050 °C) while it stays practically unchanged in those prepared at low temperature (800 °C). The position of Fp(max) can be shifted to higher magnetic fields by: (1) increasing the manufacturing pressure or decreasing the temperature (2) additions (Ti, SiC, or C, for example), and (3) in-situ preparation. Grain boundary pinning (GBP) dominates in materials prepared at low temperatures (600–800 °C), while high-temperature preparation induces strong point pinning (PP) or mixed pinning (MP) leading to outstanding properties. In materials produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS), the position of Fp(max) is higher than expected for both grain boundary and point pinning. The distribution of boron and oxygen in MgB2 based material, which can changed by additions or the preparation conditions, significantly affects the type and strength of pining.