- The goal of the present study was to examine the psychological distress of Soviet immigrant physicians in Israel and to identify risk and resilience factors in the psychological adjustment to immigration. This is a first report on a study conducted among 385 (152 men and 233 women) Soviet immigrant physicians who participated in preparatory licensing courses. The design of the study is described in detail and initial results are presented. These include demographic characteristics of the sample, background variables connected with motivation for immigration and reported absorption difficulties encountered in Israel. Family problems were found to be significantly correlated with depression: the highest rate of reported depression was found among single parents. Subjects who were examined during the second year after immigration reported depression more often than subjects who were in Israel less than a year. The findings suggest that motivational and family factors may enhance or mitigate the psychological distress experienced by immigrants.