- Purpose: Otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis (OLST) is an intracranial, potentially life-threatening complication of acute and chronic otitis media. Since congenital thrombophilic disorders are risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis, OLST may be related to thrombophilia. The aim of our study was twofold: to evaluate whether patients who suffered from OLST in childhood also have thrombophilia, and whether these patients experienced thromboembolic episodes in future years. Study design: Retrospective case series. Methods: The medical charts of all children hospitalized for OLST at Soroka University Medical Center of Israel, a tertiary referral hospital, from January 1983 to September 2014 were reviewed. The patients were invited for a follow-up visit and comprehensive medical history was taken along with a physical examination and laboratory work-up for thrombophilia. Main findings: Seven patients were included in the study. Of these, 3 (43%) had results suggesting thrombophilic disorders manifested by elevated levels of factor IX and decreased levels of protein S activity (n = 1), decreased levels of proteins C and S activity (n = 1), and elevated levels of antibodies to cardiolipin (n = 1). No patients experienced clear thrombophilic events; however, 2 patients (29%) with later proven thrombophilia suffered neurologic sequelae, possibly suggesting thrombophilic events. Conclusions: Pediatric OLST secondary to acute otitis media and mastoiditis may reflect an underlying thrombophilia. Laboratory work-up for thrombophilia should be performed, and anticoagulant treatment may be warranted in managing these patients.