- Microscopy by holographic means is attractive because it permits true three-dimensional (3D) visualization and 3D display of the objects. We investigate the necessary condition on the object size and spatial bandwidth for complete 3D microscopic imaging with phase- shifting digital holography with various common arrangements. The cases for which a Fresnel holographic arrangement is sufficient and those for which object magnification is necessary are defined. Limitations set by digital sensors are analyzed in the Wigner domain. The trade-offs between the various holographic arrangements in terms of conditions on the object size and bandwidth, recording conditions required for complete representation, and complexity are discussed.