- Two strategies for vaccine-delivery systems, both relying on concepts of controlled-release technology, are described in this review. The first strategy involves using biodegradable polymer microspheres for parenteral and oral delivery of antigens. The other strategy combines two technologies, the encapsulation of antigen within liposomes and liposome encapsulation in hydrogels, to protect them from a rapid degradation in vivo. Both strategies have shown promise in terms of increasing the immunogenicity of poorly immunogenic peptides and protein vaccines. The microencapsulation process, antigen stability, mechanism of antigen release, and optimal release kinetics for vaccine delivery are reviewed, and the strengths and weaknesses of each approach are discussed.