- Background and Objectives: Vulvar carcinoma accounts for 4.9% of all female genital tract malignancies in the south of Israel. The most common histologic type is squamous cell carcinoma (82%). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in the south of Israel. Methods Data from the files of 50 patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma who were managed at the Soroka Medical Center between January 1961 and December 1996 were evaluated. Results Mean age at diagnosis was 67.1 years. The most prevailing presenting symptoms were vulvar lump, ulcer, and itching. Mean patient delay in seeking medical help was 48.2 months. Clinical palpation as a test for detecting groin lymph node metastases had a sensitivity and specificity of 57.1% and 61.5%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate was 60.3% overall. By means of univariate analysis, a significant worsening in survival was demonstrated with advancing stage of disease (P < 0.001), tumor >4 cm (P < 0.001), and positivity of surgical margins (P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model) in a group of 45 patients, stage of disease was the strongest and the only significant predictor of survival (P = 0.0098). Conclusions Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma predominantly affects older women. Stage of disease, tumor size, and status of surgical margins are sensitive predictors of survival. The treatment of choice for most patients is surgery consisting of radical vulvectomy and bilateral groin lymphadenectomy. J. Surg. Oncol. 1998;67:174–181. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.