- In recent years, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have emerged in many hospitals worldwide. The increasing dissemination and long-term carriage of these organisms within the community carry tremendous implications on the empirical therapy of community-acquired infection. To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of community-acquired bacteremia involving ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in southern Israel (ESBL-P) we retrospectively studied all Enterobacteriaceae bacteremias during an 8-month period in the Negev region using medical and laboratory records. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk-diffusion method. ESBL production was determined using an E-test ESBL strip. Cases involving ESBL-P were compared to those involving non-producing strains (ESBL-NP) using the chi-square test. In all, 187 Enterobacteriaceae bacteremias were detected, of which 119 were community-acquired (63.6%). ESBL-P were found in six cases (5%) which are described herein in greater detail. Patients with ESBL-P bacteremia were older, and were more likely to stay in the intensive-care unit. Urinary catheterization and bed-ridden conditions were significant risk factors for ESBL-P. ESBL-P strains were significantly resistant to nearly all antibiotic agents except for imipienem and piperacillin-tazobactam as opposing to ESBL-NP. Patients with ESBL-P bacteremia were more likely to suffer from complications and had a higher mortality. This paper is the first to describe community-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia involving ESBL-P strains in Israel. Although the exact prevalence of these organisms in Israel is currently unknown, our findings suggest that ESBL-producers have already begun to disseminate in our community.