- Carcinoma within the thyroglossal duct (TGDCa) is a very rare pediatric tumor. This report presents the case of a 15-year-old girl with TGDCa, reviews the previously published pediatric cases of this tumor, and provides diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in TGDCa in children. Twenty one cases of TGDCa have been reported, 12 of them in females. Mean age at presentation was approximately 13 years for females and approximately 12 years for males. The duration of a midcervical mass prior to the diagnosis of TGDCa varied from 3 weeks to 8 years. The size of the neck mass at presentation averaged 2 cm-4 cm. All masses were asymptomatic, and the diagnosis of TGDCa was incidental following surgery. All pediatric cases of TGDCa reported thus far were of the papillary type, except for 3 patients who presented with a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma. Capsular invasion was detected in 10 (45%) patients. Local invasive disease was found in 5 (23%) patients, but all removed thyroid glands (12) were free of carcinoma. One patient had lung metastases. Thyroidectomy with subsequent radioiodine ablation was the treatment of choice in the majority of the cases. The reported prognosis for TGDCa in children was favorable, with only one reported death.