- ABSTRACT Ebolavirus, a member of the family Filoviridae, causes high lethality in humans and nonhuman primates. Research focused on protection and therapy for Ebola virus infection has investigated the potential role of antibodies. Recent evidence suggests that antibodies can be effective in protection from lethal challenge with Ebola virus in nonhuman primates. However, despite these encouraging results, studies have not yet determined the optimal antibodies and composition of an antibody cocktail, if required, which might serve as a highly effective and efficient prophylactic. To better understand optimal antibodies and their targets, which might be important for protection from Ebola virus infection, we sought to determine the profile of viral protein-specific antibodies generated during a natural cycle of infection in humans. To this end, we characterized the profile of antibodies against individual viral proteins of Sudan Ebola virus (Gulu) in human survivors and nonsurvivors of the outbreak in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000-2001. We developed a unique chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this purpose based on the full-length recombinant viral proteins NP, VP30, and VP40 and two recombinant forms of the viral glycoprotein (GP 1-294 and GP 1-649 ) of Sudan Ebola virus (Gulu). Screening results revealed that the greatest immunoreactivity was directed to the viral proteins NP and GP 1-649 , followed by VP40. Comparison of positive immunoreactivity between the viral proteins NP, GP 1-649 , and VP40 demonstrated a high correlation of immunoreactivity between these viral proteins, which is also linked with survival. Overall, our studies of the profile of immunorecognition of antibodies against four viral proteins of Sudan Ebola virus in human survivors may facilitate development of effective monoclonal antibody cocktails in the future.