Middle East and North Africa: Intraregional fragmentation and clustering Academic Article uri icon


  • From the second half of the twentieth century, Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies and societies have been shaped by two main factors. The first is a regime change associated with the creation of nation-states, followed by the inner-looking nationalistic perspective on the economy that such regimes have tended to adopt (Owen and Pamuk, 1999). The creation of independent states across the region has further resulted in the entrenchment of autocratic regimes that have often taken the form of'bunker'and' bullypraetorian'states, or conservative monarchies, in which large public sectors completely dominate both the economy and society (Henry and Springborg, 2001). The second factor is the'demographic revolution'that has significantly increased pressure on available resources. The result has been a rapidly increasing population of working age, for whose …

publication date

  • January 1, 2006