Near elimination of otitis media caused by the PCV13 serotypes in Southern Israel shortly after sequential introduction of PCV7/PCV13. Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • Background. Otitis media (OM) is common in early childhood. Streptococcus pneumoniae caused approximately 30%–60% of episodes before the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. The 7-valent PCV (PCV7) was introduced to the Israeli National Immunization Plan in July 2009, and was gradually replaced by the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) starting in November 2010. We aimed at assessing the impact of PCV7/PCV13 sequential introduction on pneumococcal and overall OM necessitating middle ear fluid culture in children aged <2 years in southern Israel. Methods. This was a prospective, population-based, active surveillance. Our medical center is the only one in the region, enabling incidence calculation. All pneumococcal episodes submitted for culture between July 2004 and June 2013 were included. Three subperiods were defined: pre-PCV, PCV7, and PCV13. Results. Overall, 6122 OM episodes were recorded, and 1893 were pneumococcal. Compared with the pre-PCV period, OM caused by PCV7 plus serotype 6A and the 5 additional PCV13 serotypes (5VT : 1, 3, 5, 7F, 19A) decreased by 96% and 85%, respectively (incidence rate ratios [IRRs], 0.04 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .02–.08] and 0.15 [95% CI, .07–.30], respectively) in a 2-step pattern: In the PCV7 period, only OM caused by PCV7 + 6A serotypes was decreased; in the PCV13 period, 5VT OM rates decreased, along with an additional PCV7 + 6A OM reduction. A nonsignificant increase in non-PCV13 serotype OM was observed (IRR, 1.07 [95% CI, .72–1.58]). In total, 77% and 60% reductions of all-pneumococcal and all-cause OM incidences, respectively, were observed. Conclusions. A substantial 2-step reduction of pneumococcal OM rates, with near-elimination of PCV13 disease, was observed shortly after PCV7/PCV13 introduction.

publication date

  • August 25, 2014