### abstract

- An analytical model for gas-solid suspension flow through an inclined section of pipe was developed. This model predicts the ratio of the total pressure drop in an inclined pipe to that of a horizontal pipe. The model has been used to predict the critical pipe angle, which is defined as the angle at which the maximum pressure drop for a given solids flow rate is achieved. This angle differs from 90° (found in a single-phase flow) and is directly proportional to the ratio between the gas superficial velocity and the particle terminal velocity. The three-dimensional conservation equations for steady-state two-phase flow in an inclined pipe were solved numerically for constant solids and gas flow rates at different pipe inclinations. This model was based on the continuum theory for describing the mass and momentum balance equations for the fluid and solid phases. A packing model, describing the shear stress of the solid phase as a function of its volume fraction, is suggested in order to limit the maximum value of the solid volume fraction. A new model for particle-wall interaction was developed taking into account the angle of inclination of the pipe. The prediction of the numerical model was compared with experimental data obtained in a specially designed test rig. In general, the agreement between the experimental data and the models was satisfactory. The results of the numerical simulation also confirmed that the critical pipe angle for gas-solid flow is lower than 90°. The assumptions made during the development of the models were assessed in order to explain the differences between the predicted and measured values of the flow parameters for different flow regimes.