- Unlike heart valves or blood vessels, heart muscle has no replacement alternatives. The most challenging goal in the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering is the creation/ regeneration of an engineered heart muscle. Recent advances in methods of stem cell isolation, culture in bioreactors, and the synthesis of bioactive materials promise to create engineered cardiac tissue ex vivo. At the same time, new approaches are conceived that explore ways to induce tissue regeneration after injury. The purpose of our review is to describe the principles, status, and challenges of myocardial tissue engineering with emphasize on the concept of in situ cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration.