An interactive-synergetic approach to the assessment of personality vulnerability to depression: Illustration using the adolescent version of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire Academic Article uri icon


  • Research on personality vulnerability to depression is characterized by a “main effect” approach, often at the expense of examining interactions among various dimensions of vulnerability. To compare the “main effect” and “interactive-synergetic” approaches, we utilized data from a longitudinal study of adolescent adjustment. Focusing on dependency, self-criticism, and efficacy, the three factors of the adolescent version of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, Schaffer, Bers, & Quinlan, 1992), we found support for the interactive-synergetic approach. Dependency and self-criticism interacted in predicting changes in depressive and internalizing symptoms (under low efficacy), and among boys—changes in internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results illuminate the synergetic interplay among dimensions of risk and resilience in clinical research and practice. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.

publication date

  • January 1, 2004