- Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess outstanding properties and a unique physicochemical architecture, which may serve as an alternative platform for the delivery of various therapeutic molecules. This review focuses on recent progress in the field of CNTs for biomedical applications. After a short, general physico-chemical introduction to CNTs, we introduce different methods for CNT surface modification, facilitating their dispersions in physiological solutions, on the one hand, and binding a wide range of molecules or drug-loaded liposomes, on the other. We summarize imaging evidences on the structure of CNT-drug conjugates and their relevant uptake mechanisms by the cell. Lastly, we review current repots on CNT toxicity and new developments in CNT-based medical applications: photo-thermal therapy, drug delivery and gene therapy.