- Anther culture techniques were applied to develop a methodology for producing haploid vine cactus plants. Anthers with most microspores in the middle uninucleate developmental stage from the tetraploid species Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid species Hylocereus polyrhizus and H. undatus were cultured on basal MS medium supplemented with picloram and 6-benzyladenine (BA). H. polyrhizus and H. undatus anthers were also cultured on MS medium containing either thidiazuron (TDZ) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pro-embryo development started after three days of culture. A direct androgenic embryo response was achieved in S. megalanthus with and without picloram/BA, while H. polyrhizus exhibited non-regenerative callus formation. Only a single direct androgenic embryo was obtained in H. polyrhizus (with 0.1 mg/l TDZ). H. undatus required a cold pre-treatment of 4°C for 24 h in 0.3 M D-mannitol to produce a response, but only calluses were obtained and they did not regenerate. S. megalanthus and H. polyrhizus embryos converted into plantlets after transfer to MS medium in the light. Rooted plants were acclimatized successfully, and most plants showed normal phenotypes. Flow cytometry and cytological studies revealed monoploid, haploid, dihaploid, and mixoploid plants. This study showed that androgenesis is strongly species- and culture-medium-dependent, thus revealing new perspectives in the genetics and breeding of vine cactus species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of monoploid, haploid and dihaploid plants in Cactaceae.