- Elevated PSA value in the presence of an indwelling catheter is still an enigma. The aims of this prospective study were: to investigate the reliability of elevated PSA levels in patients with normal DRE and indwelling catheter after AUR; to assess the impact of preoperative TRUS-biopsy in detecting prostate cancer in such circumstances; to estimate the crucial duration of follow-up period. 63 patients were included in the study. PSA was assessed 5 days after catheter insertion. All patients failed to void without catheter and have been scheduled for surgery. TRUS-biopsy was performed before operation. All patients underwent surgery at least two weeks after prostate biopsies. Postoperative follow-up visits continued for at least 7 years. Biopsies were taken when indicated by persistently elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE. Mean PSA before catheter insertion differed significantly from PSA obtained on the 5(th) day after AUR (p = 0.001). Mean prostate volume calculated on TRUS was 80.5 +/- 28 ml. Mean duration of indwelling catheter placement was 37.8 +/- 7.97 days. Mean delay in operative treatment as a result of preoperative evaluation was 23.548 +/- 2.487 days. Carcinoma was detected in 13 patients, while clinically insignificant cancer was present in 31% (4 patients). It must be also emphasized that 38% of patients with carcinoma were >70 year-old. Preoperative TRUS-biopsy and postoperative pathologic exam diagnosed carcinoma in 5 patients (2 and 3 respectively). During 42 months of 7-year follow-up cancer was revealed in 8 patients. Mean PSA value in the follow-up period was significantly elevated in patients with carcinoma: 5.99 +/- 3.34 v/s 2.34 +/- 1.68 ng/ml (p = 0.007) and was the strongest predictor for cancer detection (p = 0.001). The detection rate of clinically significant cancer on preoperative biopsies postoperative pathologic exam in patients with AUR and indwelling catheter is low. These patients could be safely operated on without any delay. However, in order to detect clinically important cancer in the peripheral zone a postoperative monitoring period of should be recommended: starting 6 months after operation and continuing subsequently for at least 4 years. Postoperative PSA level is the strongest predictor of cancer detection and could be usefully employed in these patients. AUR and in the patients with large prostate cause elevated PSA. Cancer detection rate on preoperative biopsies is low in these patients. Long postoperative monitoring period should be strongly recommended.