- Pefloxacin was applied to a newborn suffering from ventriculitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae after failure of routine antibiotics. Treatment was successful. Blood and CSF levels were high, thus documenting good CSF penetration. In addition to this case report, a review of the literature regarding seven neonates with CNS infection treated with fluoroquinolones and from whom CSF levels were obtained, is presented. In conclusion, due to their excellent activity against gram-negative microorganisms, fluoroquinolones may be considered in the treatment of neonatal CNS infections if the pathogen is resistant to routinely used antibiotics. Only limited experience is available with fluoroquinolones in pediatric patients given their potential for cartilage toxicity in young animals.