- Methods: Continuous air quality monitoring is carried out by the Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection. We identified all sandstorm days (SSDs) for the period between January 2006 and December 2008. For each of these “case” days, we selected 2 non- sandstorm control days from the previous and the subsequent fortnights, matching them for day of the week. The number of emergency department (ED) visits for acute cardio- respiratory conditions at a regional medical center was counted for each SSD and its matched control days. SSD counts were compared to mean matched counts using the paired t-test.