- Background Ethnical disparities in presentation and outcomes following AMI were reported. We evaluated the temporal-trends of AMI hospitalizations and mortality of Bedouins (Muslims) and Jews in Israel. Methods Retrospective analysis of 15,352 AMI admissions (10,652 patients; 11.3% Bedouins, 88.7% Jews) throughout 2002–2012. The trends in admission rates (AR) were compared using direct age–sex adjustment. The trends of in-hospital mortality (IHM) and 1-year post-discharge mortality (PDM) were adjusted for the patients' characteristics. Results Bedouins were younger (61.7 ± 14.3 vs. 68.8 ± 13.7 years, p < 0.001), a higher rate of males. Different prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was found. STEMI presentation, 3-vessel disease and PCI intervention were more frequently in Bedouins than Jews. Adjusted AR was lower among Jews (4.80/1000 and 3.24/1000 in 2002 and 2012 respectively) than in Bedouins (9.63/1000 and 5.13/1000). A significant decrease of adjusted AR was found in both ethnicities (p-for-trend < 0.001 both), greater in Bedouins (p-for-disparity = 0.017). The overall rate of IHM was higher for Jews (8.7% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.001). The decline of IHM was found in both groups: an increase of one-year resulted in AdjOR = 0.877; (p-for-trend < 0.001) and 0.910 (p-for-trend = 0.052) in Jews and Bedouins respectively (p-for-interaction = 0.793). The rates of PDM were higher for Jews (13.6% vs. 9.9%; p = 0.001). The risk for PDM increased in both groups: AdjOR = 1.118; (p-for-trend < 0.001) and 1.093; (p-for-trend = 0.012) for one-year increase, for Jews and Bedouins respectively (p-for-interaction = 0.927). Conclusions Throughout 2002–2012 Bedouin AMI patients differed from Jews. Adjusted incidence of AMI declined, greater in Bedouins. IHM declined and PDM increased in both groups. A culturally sensitive prevention program is warranted.