- Background: The incidence and prevalence of pediatric chronic kidney disease (p-CKD) in developed countries has previously been estimated to be 12 and 75 cases/10 (6) population respectively, much lower than reports in young adults (age 20-40) (40,000/10 (6)). Thus, the extent of p-CKD may be underestimated. Methods: Being the only Pediatric Nephrology center in Southern Israel, we reviewed all detected cases of p-CKD (stages 1-5) between 1994-2008. We then prospectively summarized the incidence and prevalence of CKD between 2009-2010. Results: We retrospectively identified 192 children (53.9% of Bedouin origin, 53.4% males, median diagnosis age: 1 year) with CKD. The prevalence in December 2008 was 795 cases/10 (6) for all CKD stages and 331/10 (6) for CKD stage >2. Calculated incidence for the study period (1994-2008) was 46/10 (6)/year. The main CKD etiologies were: hypodysplasia: 35%; obstructive uropathy: 13%; genetic renal diseases: 28% and glomerulonephritis: 15%. The proportions of children in each CKD stage were as follows: stage 1: 50%; stages 2-4: 30%; stage 5: 20%. During a subsequent two-year study period we identified 26 new CKD cases (incidence: 54 cases/10 (6)/year). Conclusions: p-CKD rates in our area are higher than reported and maybe even higher if asymptomatic populations are screened. Fifty percent of detected cases have CKD stage 1. This may contribute significantly to CKD beyond the pediatric age.