- Background In 1982, Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) was identified as a pathogenic factor in peptic ulcer disease by researchers from Australia. Because only a small number of studies of H. pylori infection have been conducted in people with intellectual disability (ID), and none of these were done in Israel, the present authors decided to conduct a pilot study on its prevalence in this population. Methods The Israeli Division for Mental Retardation provides services to over 6000 people in 54 residential care centres (or institutions), and one centre in the south of the country with kibbutz-style living arrangements was selected for this pilot study. The study was performed as part of the yearly routine medical examination of all residents, and blood specimens were drawn for IgG antibodies to H. pylori (ELISA). Results Out of the 47 individuals screened, 75% (n = 36) were seropositive. Conclusion In addition to the reported high rates of H. pylori infection in residents with ID living in large facilities, the present pilot study suggests that people with ID living in smaller, kibbutz-style arrangements are also at high risk.