- The general hydrological equation, inflow = outflow ± change in storage, can be used to make accurate estimates of water use by ponds for inland aquaculture projects. The primary inflows are precipitation, runoff and regulated water additions. The main outflows are evaporation, seepage, overflow after storms and intentional discharge. Water conservation measures such as maintaining storage capacity in ponds equal to the normal, maximum daily precipitation, reduction in seepage beneath dams and through pond bottoms, fish harvest without draining ponds, and water re-use are discussed. Even with the implementation of water conservation measures, pond aquaculture is a water- intensive endeavour which consumes more water per unit of area than irrigated agriculture. However, the value of aquacultural production per unit of water used greatly exceeds that of irrigated agriculture. Reduction in effluent volume is the most effective water saving means, and not only reduces water consumption but also reduces the pollution potential of pond aquaculture.