- To assess maternal and perinatal morbidity in patients undergoing a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC) in twin gestations. A retrospective study including all twin pregnancies with a single prior cesarean section was performed. Stratified analysis using a multiple logistic regression model was performed to control for confounders. Patients who had a clear medical indication for a cesarean section (i.e. previous corporeal cesarean section, breech or transverse presentation, placenta previa, placental abruption, and herpes infection) were excluded from the analysis. During the years 1988-2007, 134 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 25 patients underwent a trial of labor and the remaining 109 underwent a repeat cesarean delivery. There were no cases of uterine rupture, maternal mortality, or peripartum fever in our population. Higher rates of perinatal mortality were noted in patients undergoing a trial of labor (8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.042, OR = 4.652, 95% CI = 1.122-19.286). However, a trial of labor was not found to be an independent risk factor for perinatal mortality after controlling for confounders such as gestational age, ethnicity, and fetal malformations (adjusted OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.07-15.95, p = 0.95). A TOLAC is not associated with an increased risk for maternal morbidity, including uterine rupture. Nevertheless, in our population TOLAC was noted as a risk factor for perinatal mortality, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. Further prospective randomized studies should evaluate the safety of TOLAC in twin gestations to establish appropriate guidelines.