- Many viruses can establish non-cytolytic, chronic infections in host cells. Beyond the intrinsically interesting questions of how this long-term parasitism is achieved, persistently infected cells can be useful to study virus-host interactions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs transcribed from the genomes of all multicellular organisms and some viruses. Individual miRNAs may regulate several hundred genes. In this research we have studied the expression of a selective group of host-cell encoded miRNAs, as expressed in a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) persistently infected HEp-2 cell line (HEp-2+RSV-GFP). The RSV is a virus that does not encode miRNAs in its genome. Our study shows that Dicer is down regulated, miRNA's 146a-5p is strongly up-regulated and miRNAs 345-5p, let-7c-5p and miRNA's-221 are down-regulated in HEp-2+RSV-GFP cells. Correspondingly, changes in the miRNA 146a-5p and miRNA 345-5p respective miRNAs target proteins: HSP-70 and p21, were observed. Thus, RSV persistent viral infection induces unique patterns of miRNA's expression with relevance to how the virus regulates the host cell response to infection.